Seismic Fundamentals

Program Objectives

This comprehensive introductory course has been specifically designed to provide a solid understanding of seismic acquisition, processing and interpretation. Emphasis is placed on seismic interpretation. Participants will gain the knowledge foundation, experience, techniques and tools to interpret seismic data and evaluate the quality of seismic interpretation received by outside contractors. Multiple examples and practical exercises are included to link the material to exploration and development products derived from seismic data. Participants will learn the basic steps to acquire and process seismic, imaging differences between 2D and 3D seismic, and integrated seismic interpretation techniques. Additionally, students will study how to use seismic attributes and inversion data to predict reservoir characteristics, techniques to convert two-way time maps to depth, the use of Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators (DHI) to improve the chance of success for exploration and exploitation wells, and the use of seismic to predict geopressure.
Course Outline
Day 1
  • Introduction 
    • Why Shoot 3D Seismic? 
  • Theory
    • The seismic response
    • Physical controls on velocity variations 
    • Vertical resolution
Day 2 
  • Seismic Acquisition
    • Acquisition of multi-fold data 
    • Geologic goals and trade-offs 
    • Selection of parameters 
  • Seismic Processing
    • Correction for near surface problems
    • Noise reduction 
    • Velocity analysis 
    • Lateral resolution 
    • Post-stack and pre-stack time migration 
    • Imaging differences between 2D and 3D seismic 
    • Pre-stack depth migration 
Day 3
  • Seismic Interpretation (Part I) 
    • Tying well information to seismic
      • Synthetic seismograms 
      • Simple 1D modelling 
      • The wedge model 
      • Identifying high and low impedance sands 
      • Verifying the phase of the seismic 
    • Interpretation strategies 
      • Deciding which horizons to interpret 
      • Horizon interpretation on 3D data 
      • Fault interpretation on 3D data 
      • Identification of subtle faults 
      • Special issues related to the interpretation of 2D seismic 
    • Seismic interpretation for basin analysis 
      • Structural styles
      • Depositional systems 
      • Petroleum systems

Day 4
  • Seismic Interpretation (Part II) 
    • Attribute analysis 
      • Stacked amplitude
      • Instantaneous attributes 
      • Interval attributes 
      • Horizon attributes 
      • Impedance 
      • Tying attributes to well data 
    • Depth Conversion 
      • Velocity functions 
      • Average velocity maps 
      • Velocity cubes 
      • Pre-Stack depth migration 
    • Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators (DHI) and AVO
      • Rock properties modelling 
      • Fluid substitution 
      • Log data requirements for modelling 
      • AVO products 
      • Relationship between AVO, DHIs and stacked DHIs 
      • 4D Seismic 
Day 5
  • Non-Seismic Methods 
    • Gravity 
    • Magnetics 
    • Electrical methods 
  • Final exam