Fluid Property Characterization

Program Objectives

This course provides a solid understanding on reservoir fluid sampling, laboratory PVT experiments, PVT data validation and EOS phase modeling, and preparation of PVT input data for reservoir simulation.  The course will start with the fundamentals of well conditioning and fluid sampling techniques which are critical to acquiring representative fluid samples.  It then covers various laboratory PVT experiments, data validation and analysis before phase modeling. The main part of the course is phase modeling, which includes characterization for complex reservoir fluids, and modeling of fluid phase behavior using equation of state (EOS).  Using industry standard Peng-Robinson (PR) and Soave Redlich-Kwong (SRK) equations, the course details how to calculate EOS model parameters matching Lab PVT Experiment data.  Then, the students will learn how to prepare the PVT input data for reservoir simulation. The students’ competence in applying the core concepts learned will be emphasized with hands-on experience solving various class example problems using a powerful PVT phase package.

Course Outline

Day 1

  • Fluid Types
    • The Pressure-Temperature envelope 
    • Black Oils 
    • Volatile Oils 
    • Near-Critical Fluids 
    • Rich Condensates 
    • Lean Condensates 
    • Dry Gases 
  • Fluid Sampling 
    • Well Conditioning 
    • Surface sampling techniques 
    • MDT sampling techniques 
    • Oil based mud decontamination

Day 2

  • PVT Lab Experiments
    • Recombination of surface samples
    • Compositional determinations
      • Gas Chromatography
      • True Boiling Point Distillation
  • Routine Laboratory Experiments
    • Constant Composition Expansion
    • Constant Volume Depletion
    • Differential Liberation
    • Single and Multi-stage Separator Tests
    • Viscosity Measurement
    • Density Measurement
Day 3

  • EOS Fundamentals
    • Ideal Gas and Real Gas Laws
    • Critical Properties
    • Van der Waals Law
    • Peng-Robinson and Soave-Redlich-Kwong EOS models
    • Acentric and volumetric shift parameters

Day 3

  • EOS Fundamentals (cont.)
    • Treatments for mixtures
    • Mixing rules
    • Binary Interaction Parameters
    • Law of Corresponding States
    • Thermodynamic Equilibrium
    • K-value correlations
    • Ternary diagram
    • Rice-Rachford Equation
    • Phase Stability
    • Two-Phase Flash Calculation
  • Saturation Pressure Calculation
  • The Saturation Pressure Calculation
  • Compositional Grading
  • Special considerations for three-phase systems
  • Asphaltene models

Day 4

  • Fluid Characterization and EOS Development
    • How to read and QC a PVT report
    • What data is useful and what data is not
    • What EOS model to use
    • How many components to use
    • What to do with the heavy ends
    • How to make an initial characterization
    • What EOS parameters to regress upon and why
    • Quality checking the characterization
  • Fluid Operational Issues
    • Compositional gradients due to P-T gradients
    • Reservoir fluids from multi-zones

Day 5

  • Black Oil PVT Table Formulation
    • Traditional & Extended black oil table
    • Dodson’s correlation
    • Whitson-Torp’s method
  • Final Exam