Basic Waterflooding

Program Objectives
This 5-day course presents important concepts and techniques to understand waterflooding in oil reservoirs. The course covers the fundamental concepts of fluid flow in porous media, including an overview of rock and fluid properties such as interfacial tension, relative permeability, wettability, and capillary pressure. The course will teach students the impact of these factors on waterflood performance. Participants will learn about immiscible displacement with fractional flow theory. Various waterflooding patterns and their theoretical performance will be discussed. Sweep efficiencies will be discussed in detail. Analytical forecasting techniques will be presented, including Buckley-Leverett model. The importance of reservoir description on waterflooding will be discussed in detail. An introduction to streamline modeling will be presented. Attendees reinforce their learned skills with several in-class exercises.
Course Outline
Day 1
  • Reservoir Mechanisms
    • Primary recovery 
    • Secondary recovery 
    • Tertiary recovery 
  • Darcy’s Law 
  • Basic Material Balance Techniques 
  • Injection-withdrawal ratios 
  • Decline curve analysis 
Day 2
  • Fundamental concepts and definitions 
    • Interfacial tension 
    • Wettability 
    • Relative Permeability 
  • Capillary Pressure
  • Mobility Ratio 
  • Water-oil Relative permeability 
  • Significance of Corey 
  • Immiscible Displacement 
    • Fractional Flow theory 
    • Buckley Leverett theory 
    • Welge displacement efficiency calculations 
  • Unit Displacement Efficiency


Day 3
  • Efficiencies – unit displacement, vertical sweep, areal sweep, volumetric sweep 
  • Waterflood Patterns 
  • Effect of d/a ratios on areal sweep efficiency 
  • Factors affecting pattern selection 
  • Muskat’s pattern flow equations 
Day 4
  • Measures of permeability heterogeneity 
    • Lorenz coefficient 
    • Dykstra-Parsons coefficient 
  • Graphical correlations relating permeability heterogeneity to vertical sweep efficiency 
  • Stiles vertical sweep efficiency calculation 
  • Injectivity 
  • Hydraulic fracturing 
  • Hall plots 
  • Step-rate tests 
Day 5
  • Introduction to Streamline modeling 
  • Various Case Studies